Taiwan, whose name means “terraced bay”, was originally inhabited by peoples with Austronesian languages who settled in the plains and were only pushed into the mountains by the Chinese immigrants, where their descendants still live today (Ami, Atayal). The second name Formosa (Ilha Formosa, “beautiful island”) was given to the island by the Portuguese, who came here in 1590 as the first Europeans. In 1624 the Dutch landed on Taiwan and established a trading post; the Spaniards, who had settled in the north of the island in 1626, were finally ousted by them in 1642.
A significant Chinese settlement did not begin until the time of Dutch colonization (1642–62). The population of Chinese origin rose from (1624) 25,000 to (1650) 100,000 people. The conquest of China by the Tungus Manchu (Qing dynasty), who replaced the Ming dynasty in 1644, drove many Chinese, v. a. from the southern provinces of Fujian and Guangdong, to Taiwan. Among these refugees, mostly supporters of the displaced Ming, was Zheng Chenggong (also known as Koxinga), who drove the Dutch out of Taiwan in 1662. After his brief reign (he died in the same year) internal turmoil arose, which in 1683 – following a fleet expedition of the Qing – led to the island being surrendered to China. In 1885 Taiwan became a Chinese province and developed under the governor Liu Mingchuan (1885–91), who introduced reforms in education, the transport system (China’s first railway network) and in industry and economy, to become the most modern province of the empire.
After the Sino-Japanese War (1894/95) China ceded Taiwan and the Pescadores to Japan in the peace treaty of Shimonoseki, which opened up these areas for agriculture and infrastructure, “pacified” them by overthrowing the indigenous peoples in the south, and made the island the basis of its expansion Southeast Asia expanded. According to the Cairo Declaration announced by its opponents in World War II (China, Great Britain and the USA) on November 26, 1943, after its military defeat in 1945, Japan had to unconditionally renounce Taiwan and the Pescadores. 9. 1951) a beneficiary was named.
In 1947, according to directoryaah, the Chinese Guomindang government put down an uprising among the indigenous people striving for independence (execution of several thousand “insurgents”).
After the final defeat of the Guomindang government in the civil war against the communists, it withdrew with its political institutions and military forces to Taiwan and the Pescadores in 1949. On March 1, 1950, Chiang Kai-shek was reappointed President of the “Republic of China”; Taipei was designated the temporary seat of government of the state (previously unofficially known as “National China “), while Nanking (Nanjing) – until the “reconquest of the mainland” – was to remain the capital of the republic. Supported by a. From the United States, which signed a protection agreement with the Republic of China on Taiwan in 1954 and a defense pact in 1955, Taiwan was able to gain not only its territory, but also its international position. a. claim as a member of the General Assembly and as a permanent member of the UN Security Council. In 1949–54 the government carried out a land reform. With extensive economic aid from the USA, Taiwan developed into a major economic power in Asia. In 1958 and 1960, coastal batteries of the People’s Republic of China shelled the islands of Quemoy and Ma-Tsu off Taiwan and belonging to the territory of the Republic of China. Against the background of a rapprochement between the USA and the People’s Republic of China and growing international isolation, Taiwan lost its seat in the General Assembly and the Security Council of the UN in 1971. When the USA established diplomatic relations with the People’s Republic of China on January 1, 1979, they also broke them off with Taiwan. In 1979 an “America Institute” took over the tasks of an embassy in Taiwan. Only about 30 states maintained diplomatic relations with Taiwan in the period that followed (including South Africa until the end of 1997, and Vatican City was the only one in Europe). In 1979 an “America Institute” took over the tasks of an embassy in Taiwan. Only about 30 states maintained diplomatic relations with Taiwan in the period that followed (including South Africa until the end of 1997, and Vatican City was the only one in Europe). In 1979 an “America Institute” took over the tasks of an embassy in Taiwan. Only about 30 states maintained diplomatic relations with Taiwan in the period that followed (including South Africa until the end of 1997, and Vatican City was the only one in Europe).
After Chiang Kai-shek’s death in 1975, Vice President Yen Chia-kan (Yan Jiagan) became head of state, and in 1978 Chiang’s son Chiang Ching-kuo (Jiang Jingguo , until 1988). In 1986 the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) was founded as the first major opposition party. In 1987 martial law, which had been in force since 1949, was repealed and replaced by new security laws. In 1989 the parliament passed a new party law, which generally allowed the establishment of new parties. In the first elections after the abolition of martial law in December 1989, 41% of the votes cast were for the opposition parties (59% for the Guomindang [GMD]). Under PresidentLee Teng-hui (Li Denghui ; 1988-2000), the first non-mainland head of state, relaxed relations with the People’s Republic of China (extensive legalization of trade, expansion of travel). In 1991 the state president’s emergency rights, introduced in the civil war against the communists in 1948, were revoked and further constitutional amendments were passed. In the elections to the National Assembly in December 1991, the Guomindang prevailed as the clear winner over the opposition DPP, which led a movement for the formal independence (separation) of Taiwan from the People’s Republic of China and thus came into conflict with the ruling party. In February 1993, Lien Chan (Lian Zhan, * 1936) Prime Minister. In the parliamentary elections in December 1995 the GMD won an absolute majority (53% of the vote), but was faced with a stronger opposition (one third of the seats went to the DPP). The first direct presidential elections took place in March 1996; Incumbent Lee Teng-hui was re-elected. He affirmed Taiwan’s willingness to enter into talks with the People’s Republic of China on national reunification, but not at the price of subordination according to their concept of »one country, two systems«, but only on the basis of equality and through negotiations at the government level (» One country, two governments «). After the resignation of Lien Chan in 1997, Vincent C. Siew (* 1939)new head of government. In the local elections in November 1997, the GMD suffered its biggest debacle to date (outstripped by the DPP both in terms of percentage and in terms of the number of local governments it provided); for the first time there were signs of their loss of power. However, the GMD again won the majority in the parliamentary elections on December 5, 1998.