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Peru Archaeology

Peru Archaeology

Excavation, exploration and study activity has been intense in recent years. According to 800zipcodes, JC Tello obtained fruitful results in a campaign conducted in 1933 in the Nepeña valley (coast of the Ancash department), discovering important remains in the pyramids of Puncuri and Cerro Blanco. Numerous Inca buildings in the Cuzco region brought to light in 1933 and 1934 LE Valcárcel, and especially in the citadel of Sacsahuaman, which dominates the ancient capital of the Incas, stone structures of considerable…

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Peru Arts

Peru Arts

Since the 1950s, the search for roots in pre-Hispanic culture has characterized the activity of many Peruvian artists. In the following decade, the first experiences of pop art appeared on the art scene (which had the support of industrial and financial groups) flanked by geometric and, in a more limited way, conceptual research. The foundations of experiences of a peculiarly national character have been laid on these trends. According to indexdotcom, the national reformism of General J. Velasco Alvarado, president…

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Peru Climate

Peru Climate

According to findjobdescriptions, scarce is the material that one possesses for the knowledge of the climate of Peru, being very few and very unevenly distributed the stations for which meteorological observations are made available for a conspicuous series of years. Five main climatic zones can be distinguished in bulk: the coastal region, the western slopes of the Sierra, the plateau, the eastern slopes of the Sierra, the Montaña. The coastal region has a peculiar oceanic desert climate (which E. De…

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Peru Communications and Transport

Peru Communications and Transport

The orographic conditions greatly hinder the development of communication routes, and this has naturally had a negative impact on the economic and therefore demographic and political development of the country, and has ensured that the three parts that make it up have always remained somewhat alien to each other in their relationships. Ordinary roads are mostly simple tracks, and in many regions traffic is still done by mule or blade. Roads built with modern systems are found only in the…

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Peru Continental Water

Peru Continental Water

State of South America, which borders to N. with Ecuador and Colombia, to E. with Brazil (state of Amazonas and Acre territory) and Bolivia, to S. with Chile, and is wet to O. from the Pacific Ocean. Name. – The origin of the name Peru is uncertain, which was not known by the Indians, but was used only by the Spaniards, who applied it to all the lands they conquered south of Panama, deriving it, it seems, from the name…

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Peru Economy 1940

Peru Economy 1940

Borders. – In January 1942 at the Pan-American Conference in Rio de Janeiro, the dispute between Peru and Ecuador for the possession of the Amazonian territories ended. Following this agreement, Peru purchased an area of ​​approximately 172,770 sq km, which, divided between the departments of Tumbes, Piura, Amazonas, Cajamarca, Loreto, has brought the total area of ​​the state from 1,249,049 sq km. (according to the Sociedad Geográfica of Lima, 1936) at approximately 1,421,864 sq km; however the exact area data…

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Peru Exploration and Borders

Peru Exploration and Borders

Exploration. – In the long period of Spanish domination (for the discovery and conquest, see below) the missionaries and the Jesuits contributed to widening the knowledge of the country, but foreign travelers were systematically kept away, allowing only French scholars to penetrate the interior starting from 1700. We remember among them Frezier who in the first years of the century traveled the plateau of Peru and Bolivia. According to Ehotelat, in the last twenty years of the same century the…

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Peru Foreign Trade

Peru Foreign Trade

Trade. – Internal trade is hampered by the difficulty of transport between one region and another. Coastal oases send tropical products to the Sierra and receive products from temperate zones: thus, for example, the departments of Huancavelica, Ayacucho, Ancash and Cajamarca supply cereals to Lima and the other centers of the coast; but the competition from foreign flours is very strong and tends to reduce this internal traffic. In foreign trade the balance is largely favorable to Peru (the value…

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Peru History – Organization of the Viceroyalty

Peru History – Organization of the Viceroyalty

According to agooddir, the establishment of the new order started by La Gasca, which before leaving (but kept it hidden until his departure) with a reorganization of the repartimientos reduced in number and privileges, it was after short viceregal or presidential governments completed by the viceroy Andrés Hurtado de Mendoza, Marquis of Cañete (1556-1561), who combined the prudence and cunning of La Gasca with the energetic and unscrupulous obstinacy of Blasco Núñez. He sent back to Spain or sent in…

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Peru History – The Hispanic Institutions and Society – Peruvian

Peru History – The Hispanic Institutions and Society – Peruvian

The viceroyalty of Peru embraced most of Spanish South America in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. XVIII however it was gradually shrinking with the creation of the viceroyalty of New Granada (1739) and later (1778) of the viceroyalty of Buenos Aires, including also Upper Peru, and of the captaincy general of Santiago del Chile (1778). Subjected strictly and directly to the crown of Castile even before the government of the Spanish monarchy, the supreme legislative and judicial body of the…

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Peru in the 1960’s and 1970’s

Peru in the 1960’s and 1970’s

PG Beltrán, prime minister and finance minister, practically governed, in place of the inept president M. Prado Ugarteche, from 1959 to 1962. He cleverly stemmed inflation with an austerity regime and trying to implement a policy in favor of masses. However, he did not succeed in overcoming the distrust of the right or in satisfying the left; in Parliament his initiatives were systematically rejected both by the followers of Odria and by the aprists, the faithful of Haya de la…

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Peru Modern Literature

Peru Modern Literature

During the colonial period, Peru experienced the splendors of its viceroyalty, which also contributed to maintaining and consolidating the culture. It is understood that the first literary manifestations are limited to romances anonymous and descriptive chronicles even if composed in the form of poems. Together with Mexico, Peru was the Spanish colony which kept the most alive and continuous contacts with the motherland not only through books, but also and especially through the direct intervention of the Castilian writers. In…

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Peru Spiritual Culture and Organization

Peru Spiritual Culture and Organization

According to listofusnewspapers, the foundation and cell of every social entity was – and still is – in Peru the ayllu, a nucleus presided over by a curaca. The various descriptions that have come down to us, being contradictory, oppose a certain difficulty in understanding what the ayllu essentially was: by some sources it is defined as a noble group, comparable to the Roman gens, by others as a numerical group of 100 families, capable of giving the army a…

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