Peru Communications and Transport
The orographic conditions greatly hinder the development of communication routes, and this has naturally had a negative impact on the economic and therefore demographic and political development of the country, and has ensured that the three parts that make it up have always remained somewhat alien to each other in their relationships. Ordinary roads are mostly simple tracks, and in many regions traffic is still done by mule or blade. Roads built with modern systems are found only in the coastal region and in part of the highlands; the main ones are those that unite Lima to Callao, Lima to Lomas for Cañete, Pisco to Ica, Lima to Chiclayo, Lima to Chosica, Cuzco to La Raya, Oroya to La Merced, Ayacuho to La Mejorada. In 1932 the ordinary roads had a development of 19,200 km., 1800 of which macadamized. Mechanical transport, as is well understood, is not very widespread: at the beginning of 1933 only 9025 motor vehicles were in circulation, of which 5450 touring cars, 3175 trucks, and the remaining buses and motorcycles. Railways are also poorly developed and do not form a network, but are trunks that connect coastal oases with the nearest ports or mining areas and more populated plateaus with the coast, and also have different gauges. The major railway constructions were carried out in the period immediately preceding the war with Chile, and the capital needed for them was provided by the proceeds of the export of guano. The revenues from the tobacco monopoly are currently destined for railway construction, but the urgent needs and the program are too vast to be able to cater for you with these incomes alone, however significant they may be. In 1895 there were 1300 km in operation. of railways, which rose to 1950 in 1908, to 3067 in 1919 and to 4522 kilometers in 1932. The main lines are operated by the Peruvian Corporation Ltd., namely: the Ferrocarril Central (Callao-Lima-Oroya-Huancayo: 399 kilometers), which it is the most important line in the country and the highest in the world (it reaches 4774 m.), and from which trunks branch off to Morococha and Barranca; the Ferrocarril del Sur (Mollendo-Arequipa-Juliaca-Cuzco, with a Juliaca-Puno branch: in total 915 km; rises to 4580 m.); the Trujillo railway (Salaverry-Trujillo-Ascope, with branches for Cartavio, Menocucho, etc.: 174 km.); the Chimbote railway (Chimbote-Carás-Huarás-Recuay: 266 km.; partly exercised by the state); the Pacasmayo railway (Pacasmayo-Guadalupe, 42 km., and Pacasmayo-Chilete, I05 km.); the Pisco-Ica railway (73 km.) and the Paita-Piura (96 km.). The Lima-Huacho (212 km.), The Ilo-Moquegua (102 km.), The Cuzco-Santa Ana (170 km.), The HuancayoCastrovirreyna-Ayacucho (245 km.; it is still open to traffic only up to Castrovirreina) and other minor ones. There are also various private railways, mostly belonging to mining companies; the largest is the Oroya-Cerro de Pasco (191 km.). The electric traction lines linking Lima to neighboring towns are also privately owned.
According to itypeusa, there are several railways currently under construction: among them is the Cerro de Pasco-Pucalpa (480 km.), Which will join the plateaus with the Ucayali and which in 1934 was built for about seventy kilometers.
The Peruvian railways are among the most daring in the world; their construction required enormous expenditure and the cost of traffic is very high: therefore, the price of transport is high, and this prevents a considerable movement.
Inland navigation is of little importance, because navigable waterways are found only in the eastern region, which is depopulated and economically very backward.
The navigable river network by steam is calculated as 1500 km., Data from the Marañón-Amazzoni (from the Pongo de Manseriche onwards), from the Ucayali (downstream from Pacaya) and from the Huallaga (downstream from Yurimaguas). The only river port that has a fair amount of traffic is Iquitos on the Amazon, which regular navigation services connect with Manáos and Belém (Brazil). Iquitos, during the period in which the rubber harvesting flourished, was one of the very first places among the Peruvian ports. It is estimated that another 1100 km. of watercourses are navigable by motorboats and by indigenous rafts (balsas). The Titicaca, as mentioned, has regular steam navigation services. Maritime navigation, through which almost all of Peru’s foreign trade is carried out, has numerous ports, only some of which, however, are sufficiently equipped and with considerable traffic. Following the coast from north to south we will remember those of Talara (oil export), Paita (cotton), Pimentel and Eten (sugar, rice, cotton), Pacasmayo (rice, skins, silver, copper), Salaverry (sugar), Chimbote (copper, cotton), Callao (2 / 3 of the Peruvian imports, 1 / 4exports: copper, silver, sugar, cotton, wool), Cerro Azul (cotton), Pisco (cotton, sugar, fruit), Mollendo (copper, silver, borax), Ilo (cotton). In 1931 1,800 ships with a total tonnage of 5.8 million tons called at Peruvian ports. The cabotage service is reserved for the small Peruvian merchant navy.
The Peruvian Merchant Navy is incorporated (Lloyd’s Register, 1933-1934) from 19 steamers per ton. gross 38,743; 5 motor ships per ton. 3875; 14 sailing ships per ton. 17,825. In all: 38 ships (of gross tonnage exceeding 100 tons) per ton. 59,943; the marina is not sufficient to carry out even the country’s cabotage services, for so many inaccessible areas of which the sea is the only means of communication. This deficiency, in fact, prevented for a long time the adoption of the cabotage reserve, which was, moreover, implemented with the law of November 15, 1929. It not only reserves the coastal traffic of goods (among these were expressly included petroleum derivatives, in tin boxes or drums, by decree of 7 July 1930) to the national flag, but grants this various other facilities. The art. 12 of the law provided, however, recourse to the foreign flag in the event that the shortage of domestic vessels jeopardized the performance of coastal services; it was therefore necessary to grant (1929) to the Chilean Compañía Sud-Americana de vapores the same cabotage facilities as the Peruvian ships, upon an annual payment by the company of a sum equivalent to 480 thousand United States dollars. International Petroleum Co. was also granted the privilege of transporting oil and derivatives by cabotage, for an annual fee of 50,000 an amount equivalent to US $ 480,000. International Petroleum Co. was also granted the privilege of transporting oil and derivatives by cabotage, for an annual fee of 50,000 soles.
For a long time the government devised measures to promote the establishment of a national shipping company; in 1906 the Compañia Peruviana de vapores y dique del Callao was created, the only Peruvian company, with annual subsidy which has been remodeled several times; the 2 / 3 of the share capital ended up belonging to the state. The company thrived during the world war, then declined; a decree of 1930 declared it in liquidation; another decree (1931) reorganized it; the treasury passed on to her the shares owned by it so that, with the sale, she would pay the debts; it also granted, as a grant, the annual sums paid by the Compañía Sud-Americana and the International Petroleum Co.; budgeted the sum necessary for the payment of $ 38,953 due to the Bank of Italy, etc.
Relatively considerable development has achieved air navigation. Civil aviation in Peru depends on the Ministry of the Navy and Aviation (Inspección general de aeronáutica); the state has been interested in the development of aviation as a means of rapid transport, especially in those areas where nature does not allow other means of surface transport. The airline that goes from San Ramón to Iquitos has been in operation since 1928 and is equipped with 5 aircraft.
The main air navigation companies are: Compañia de aviación Faucett SA: uses Stinson Detroiter aircraft, 5-7 seat cabin monoplane, Wright Whirlwind and Peru & W. Wasp engines for flights at great heights; mail and passengers are transported between Lima and Puerto Pizarro with twice-weekly services, and between Lima and Arequipa and Tacna with weekly services; Pan-American Grace Airways, Inc.: operates mail and passenger service between Peru and the United States and Peru and Uruguay; the aircraft used are: Fairchild, Ford and Lockhead Vega three-engines; Peruvian Society for the cultivation of cotton: it carries out more rationally the spreading of fertilizer for the cultivation of cotton; the appliances used have a 220 hp Whirlwind motor. and carry 600 pounds of calcium arsenate; the work requires flying skills, given the very low altitude required to place the dust accurately on the fields; Air-France companies: the Peruvian government has granted this French company all the facilities for the transit of international air mail; the post arrives in Tacna from Rio de Janeiro every Friday and leaves for Europe on Friday morning; National airlines of Peru: depart from the military air base of Las Palmas, for commercial and training services; they use Stearman, Travelair and Boeing aircraft. The air service includes the Lima-Talara line (north) and Lima-Tacna, via Arequipa (south). the post arrives in Tacna from Rio de Janeiro every Friday and leaves for Europe on Friday morning; National airlines of Peru: depart from the military air base of Las Palmas, for commercial and training services; they use Stearman, Travelair and Boeing aircraft. The air service includes the Lima-Talara line (north) and Lima-Tacna, via Arequipa (south).
The post offices and telegraphs are administered by Marconi’s Wireless Telegraph Company Ltd. In 1931 there were 1104 post offices, 383 telegraph offices, 13,245 telephone posts, 29 marconigraph stations. Telegraphs had a line development of 18,900 km:; the phones of 71,900 km.
Three submarine cables connect Peru with Chile, two cables with Ecuador and Colombia.