Another landlocked country in the Middle East is Azerbaijan. It lies between the Caucasus and the Caspian Sea. Even if the Caspian Sea has a sea in its name, it is a lake and the largest in the world. The capital of the Republic of Azerbaijan is Baku. The head of state is President Iham Aliyev and the head of government is Prime Minister Artur Rasizada. The population density of 96.2 inhabitants is made up of the area of 86,600 square kilometers and the population of 8,238,672.
Nakhichevan’s exclave is separated from the mainland by an Armenian strip of territory. Azerbaijan borders Iran in the south. In the northwest, Azerbaijan has a border with Georgia, in the north with Russia, in the west with Armenia and, via the exclave, also with Turkey. Azerbaijan is the highest mountain in the Caucasus. It is called Bazardüsü and is 4,466 meters high. 50 percent of the land mass is arable land and 11.5 percent is forest. Hyenas, gazelles and jackals are among the 18,000 animal species that are native to Azerbaijan.
The proportion of Azerbaijanis is 95 percent, the remaining 5 percent are made up of Ukrainians, Russians, Avars, Mishets, Talyches, Kurds, Tatars, Turks, Georgians, Lesgians, Armenians and Caucasian Germans.
250,000 to 300,000 Jews live in Azerbaijan, but the main religion is Islam.
In terms of administration, Azerbaijan is divided into 59 rayons, an autonomous republic and eleven cities. The largest cities are Baku with 1.1 million inhabitants, Ganca with 303 thousand inhabitants, Sumqayit with 265,150 inhabitants, Mingacevir with 95,453 inhabitants, Qaracuxur with 72,989 inhabitants and Sirvan with 70,220 inhabitants.
The expansive oil industry is the trigger for the rapidly growing economy in Azerbaijan. There are 49 vehicles per thousand inhabitants moving on 24,981 kilometers of road. 92.3 percent of the roads are paved. The country has 2,123 kilometers of rails, 1,300 of which are electrified.
There is an international airport and port in Baku. 116,000 people study in Azerbaijan. There are 48 higher education institutions in the country, of which 26 have university status and 18 are private. Students must complete three years of primary school and spend 5 years in a middle school.
According to findjobdescriptions, the Republic of Armenia is located in the Caucasus in the Near East. It is between Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran and Turkey. Armenia is a landlocked country, so it has no sea coast. With the dissolution of the USSR, Armenia gained its independence in 1991.
The capital of Armenia is called Yerevan. It is a semi-presidential republic whose head of state is Sersch Sargsjan. The head of government is Prime Minister Tigran Sargsjan. The country has an area of 29,800 square kilometers and is inhabited by 3.2 million people.
As a result, the country has a population density of 107.4 inhabitants per km². 90 percent of the land area is over 1000 meters. In the foothills of the small Caucasus lies the extinct Aragaz volcano, at 4090 meters it is the highest mountain in Armenia. There are many mineral resources in this area. Especially copper oxides, the by-products of which are iron, molybdenum and gold. Uranium, various semi-metals, gemstones, tuff, basalt and marble can also be found here. Also important are the mineral water sources, whose water is used for medicinal purposes and for everyday use.
There are wild boar, mink, gulls, eagles, Syrian brown bears and wolves in Armenia, among others. Caucasian leopards and lynxes can be found in the Chosrow nature reserve.
The flora of Armenia is very diverse. The tree line in the south of the country is 2400 meters, in higher areas the flora is similar to that of the Alps.
There are 11 provinces in Armenia, these are Aragazotn, Ararat, Armawir, Gegharkunik, Kotajk, Lori, Shirak, Sjunik, Tawusch, Wajoz Dsor and Yerevan.
97.9 percent of the population are Armenians. The rest consist of Kurds, Russians, Assyrians, Pontos Greeks and Caucasian Germans.
Illiteracy in Armenia is negligible. Unfortunately, the funds for teaching materials and the maintenance of the school buildings are sometimes lacking. But there are several universities in Armenia.
Life expectancy is 70 for men and 76 for women.
The main branches of industry in Armenia are metal, food, textile, aluminum, mechanical engineering and chemical industry. Unfortunately, it is not very developed.