說明文寫作樣例六

第六題

National Health Expenditure

(in billions of dollars)

1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978
total 30 37 40 45 48 50 53 60 68 71 85 90 100 108 120 135 160 180 200
private 20 22 27 30 32 32 35 40 40 43 53 55 60 70 70 80 90 100 120
public 10 15 13 15 16 18 18 20 28 23 32 35 40 38 50 55 70 80 80

Total National Health Expenditure as a Percent of Gross National Product

1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978
5.5% 6% 6.1% 6.5% 6.8 6.9 7 7 7.1 7.7 8 8.6 8.8 9 9.2 9.3 9.5 9.6 9.8

寫作分析

本題信息量大,以粗寫,細寫難度較大.圖表中的三項可先分後合, 也可以先把三項情況的總體說清楚.全文可長可短, 考試時宜先寫主要內容, 用粗線條構成壹篇短文, 每個要點提供適當例證.

The two charts show the national health expenditure rom 1960 to 1978 and their percentage in the gross national product each year.

The national health expenditures, which were the total of the public and the private health expenditures, increased every year from 1960 to 1978. They were 30 billion dollars in 1960 and increased to 100 billion in 1973, with an aveerage increase of over 5 billion a year. Then from 1973, they increased much faster. By 1978, the figure was nearly 200 billion, with an average of 11 billion each year. The total increase in 19 years was nearly eight times.

The increase of national health expenditure resulted from the increase of both the public and the private health expenditures. The spending in the public health service in 1969 was 10 billion dollars, but increased to 80 billion dollars in 1978, with an increase of eight times. The increae in the first years, however, was not very fast. In 1960, the spending was 10 billion; in 1973, it was 40 billion. The average increase was 2.3 billion a year. But after 1973, the increase was much faster. In the last five years, there was an increase of 40 billion, with an average increase of 8 billion every year. This trend was also ture of the private health expenditure. They were 30 billion in 1960 and 78 in 1976; and the average incrrease for each year was three billion. But in the last three years, there was an increase of 40 billion, over 13 billion a year on the average.

The sharp increase of the health expenditures is reflected to some extent in their percentage in the national gross product each year. The percentage kept going up thoughout the period. It was 5.7 percent in 1960 and rose to 9.8 percent in 1978, with some sharp rises in 1961, 1964, 1971 and 1975.

It is difficult to know the reasons for the great increase of the national health expenditure, but the increse of the private health expenditures was obviously due to the fact that people were willing to spend more money for their health or more people were willing to use thhe private health service. The public health expenditures on the other head was perhaps a result of the increased spending by the government for public health. Besides, the improved facilities, the adoption of advanced eqiupment, and the use of new and expensive drugs may also have been the causes of the increase of the total health expenditures.

A comparison of the two charts reveals that though the total health expenditures increased drastically, their percentage in the national gross product did not rise so sharply. This shows that the national economy was deveeloping very ast from 1960 to 1978.