說明文寫作樣例五

第五題

Worldwide Military Expenditure, 1968-1977

(billions of dollars)

1968

1970

1972

1974

1976

1977

NATO countries

113

113

120

127

150

162

Warsaw Pact counties

73

82

100

125

150

160

United States

76

82

77

76

90

100

Other

37

50

62

75

100

105

(include the United States)

寫作分析

此圖表表示的信息可先從總的趨勢上分析, 得出世界範圍內軍費不斷增長的結論. 然後分析四各單位的增長情況,其中應包括逐個分析與相互比較. 也可先分析四各單位的情況,然後再談世界總趨勢. 無論用何種方法, 關鍵是理出頭緒,按壹定的順序進行.說明部分關於\”包括美國\”這壹點需要判斷. 根據常識,這裏應該理解為北大西洋公約組織的軍費開支包括美國的軍費開支,同時也將美國作為壹個實體單列. 本文可長可短,若寫長文, 例證可多給,相互的比較可以細壹點. 若時間緊, 則應先寫總趨勢, 然後進入主要關系的比較,這樣文章可隨時收尾.

This is a chart that shows the worldwide military expenditures from 1968 to 1977. It divides all the countries in the world into four blocks: the NATO countries including the United States, the Warsaw Pact countries, the United States as a single entity, and otherr countries as a whole group; and it shows the expenditures of the four blocks in parallel so that they can be compared with each other easily.

One obvious point indicated by the chart is that the military expenditures of the four blocks increased sharply rrom 1968 to 1977: NATO from 113 billion of dollars to 162 billion, Warsaw Pact from 73 billion to 160, the U.S from 76 to 100, and the other countries as a group from 37 to 105. A calculation based on these figures shows that the total military expenditures increased by neaarly 60 percent in a decade.

The increase of the four blocks, however, were not at the same rate. The military expenditure of NATO increased by approximately 40 percent; that of the Warsaw Pact countries was more than doubled; that of the U.S increased by 36 percent; abd that of the other countries increased three times. In terms of percentage , the increase of the other counties was the fastest. But in terms of actual dollars, it was the Warsaw Pact countries that increased their military expenditure the most–80 billion. Even so, the highest military expenditure in 1977 was still NATO\’s.

The last point that can be seen in the chart is the patterns of increase in the course of the decade. While the Warsaw Pact countries and the other counttries increased their military expenditure steadily every year, the NATO countries and the United States did not do the same in the first years of the decade. The United States kept its military expenditure at about the same level from 1968 to 1972, and then had a slight cut in 1974 before it increased its military expenditure quite sharply in 1976.

The decade indicated in the chart was a decade o arms race. It can be clearly interpreted from the chart that the high military expenditure of the NATO\’s countries and the United States at the beginning of the decade stimulated the fast increases by the WArsaw Pact countries and some of the other countries. Then, when they fely that they were threatened by the sharp increase of the military expenditure of the Warsaw Pact and some of the other contries and the United States began to spend more in order to remain the stronger or the strongest.